Vol 8, No 2 (2016)


Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

Nosenko M.A., Drutskaya M.S., Moisenovich M.M., Nedospasov S.A.


This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):10-23
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Mycoplasmas and Their Antibiotic Resistance: The Problems and Prospects in Controlling Infections

Chernova O.A., Medvedeva E.S., Mouzykantov A.A., Baranova N.B., Chernov V.M.


The present review discusses the problem of controlling mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest of self-replicating prokaryotes, parasites of higher eukaryotes, and main contaminants of cell cultures and vaccines. Possible mechanisms for the rapid development of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in mycoplasmas have been analyzed. Omics technologies provide new opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial adaptation to stress factors and identifying resistomes, the total of all genes and their products contributing to antibiotic resistance in microbes. The data obtained using an integrated approach with post-genomics methods show that antibiotic resistance may be caused by more complex processes than has been believed heretofore. The development of antibiotic resistance in mycoplasmas is associated with essential changes in the genome, proteome, and secretome profiles, which involve many genes and proteins related to fundamental cellular processes and virulence.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):24-34
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Modeling of the Binding of Peptide Blockers to Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: Approaches and Evidence

Novoseletsky V.N., Volyntseva A.D., Shaitan K.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Feofanov A.V.


Modeling of the structure of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels bound to peptide blockers aims to identify the key amino acid residues dictating affinity and provide insights into the toxin-channel interface. Computational approaches open up possibilities for in silico rational design of selective blockers, new molecular tools to study the cellular distribution and functional roles of potassium channels. It is anticipated that optimized blockers will advance the development of drugs that reduce over activation of potassium channels and attenuate the associated malfunction. Starting with an overview of the recent advances in computational simulation strategies to predict the bound state orientations of peptide pore blockers relative to KV-channels, we go on to review algorithms for the analysis of intermolecular interactions, and then take a look at the results of their application.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):35-46
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Lipid Transfer Proteins As Components of the Plant Innate Immune System: Structure, Functions, and Applications

Finkina E.I., Melnikova D.N., Bogdanov I.V., Ovchinnikova T.V.


Among a variety of molecular factors of the plant innate immune system, small proteins that transfer lipids and exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities are replica rolex womens watches of particular interest. These are lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are interesting to researchers for three main features. The first feature is the ability of plant LTPs to bind and transfer lipids, whereby these proteins got their name and were combined into one class. patek philippe replica paypalThe second feature is that LTPs are defense proteins that are components of plant innate immunity. The third feature is that LTPs constitute one of the most clinically important classes of plant allergens. In this review, we summarize the available data on the plant LTP structure, biological properties, diversity of functions, mechanisms of action, and practical applications, emphasizing their role in plant physiology and their significance in human life.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):47-61
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Monogenec Arrhythmic Syndromes: From Molecular and Genetic Aspects to Bedside

Golukhova E.Z., Gromova O.I., Shomahov R.A., Bulaeva N.I., Bockeria L.A.


The abrupt cessation of effective cardiac function that is generally due to heart rhythm disorders can cause sudden and unexpected death at any age and is referred to as a syndrome called “sudden cardiac death” (SCD). Annually, about 400,000 cases of SCD occur in the United States alone. Less than 5% of the resuscitation techniques are effective. The prevalence of SCD in a population rises with age according to the prevalence of coronary artery disease, which is the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest. However, there is a peak in SCD incidence for the age below 5 years, which is equal to 17 cases per 100,000 of the population. This peak is due to congenital monogenic arrhythmic canalopathies. Despite their relative rarity, these cases are obviously the most tragic. The immediate causes, or mechanisms, of SCD are comprehensive. Generally, it is arrhythmic death due to ventricular tachyarrythmias - sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Bradyarrhythmias and pulseless electrical activity account for no more than 40% of all registered cardiac arrests, and they are more often the outcome of the abovementioned arrhythmias. Our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for SCD has emerged from decades of basic science investigation into the normal electrophysiology of the heart, the molecular physiology of cardiac ion channels, the fundamental cellular and tissue events associated with cardiac arrhythmias, and the molecular genetics of monogenic disorders of the heart rhythm (for example, the long QT syndrome). This review presents an overview of the molecular and genetic basis of SCD in the long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and sudden cardiac death prevention strategies by modern techniques (including implantable cardioverter-defibrillator).

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):62-74
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Heat Stress-Induced DNA Damage

Kantidze O.L., Velichko A.K., Luzhin A.V., Razin S.V.


Although the heat-stress response has been extensively studied for decades, very little is known about its effects on nucleic acids and nucleic acid-associated processes. This is due to the fact that the research has focused on the study of heat shock proteins and factors (HSPs and HSFs), their involvement in the regulation of transcription, protein homeostasis, etc. Recently, there has been some progress in the study of heat stress effects on DNA integrity. In this review, we summarize and discuss well-known and potential mechanisms of formation of various heat stress-induced DNA damage.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):75-78
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Research Articles

Role of Transcriptional Read-Through in PRE Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

Elizar’ev P.V., Lomaev D.V., Chetverina D.A., Georgiev P.G., Erokhin M.M.


Maintenance of the individual patterns of gene expression in different cell types is required for the differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Expression of many genes is controlled by Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins that act through association with chromatin. PcG/TrxG are assembled on the DNA sequences termed PREs (Polycomb Response Elements), the activity of which can be modulated and switched from repression to activation. In this study, we analyzed the influence of transcriptional read-through on PRE activity switch mediated by the yeast activator GAL4. We show that a transcription terminator inserted between the promoter and PRE doesn’t prevent switching of PRE activity from repression to activation. We demonstrate that, independently of PRE orientation, high levels of transcription fail to dislodge PcG/TrxG proteins from PRE in the absence of a terminator. Thus, transcription is not the main factor required for PRE activity switch.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):79-86
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A New Approach To the Diagnosis of Point Mutations in Native DNA Using Graphene Oxide

Kuznetsov A.A., Maksimova N.R., Kaimonov V.S., Alexandrov G.N., Smagulova S.A.


Development of new methods for the diagnosis of point mutations is a pressing issue. We have developed a new approach to the design of graphene oxide-based test systems for the diagnosis of point mutations in native DNA. This new approach is based on the use of graphene oxide for the adsorption and quenching of fluorescently labeled primers in a post-amplification PCR mixture followed by detection of fluorescently labeled PCR products. It is possible to detect fluorescently labelled amplicons in the presence of an excess of primers in a PCR product solution due to the different affinities of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA molecules to graphene oxide, as well as the ability of graphene oxide to act as a quencher of the fluorophores adsorbed on its surface. The new approach was tested by designing a graphene oxide-based test system for the DNA diagnosis of the point mutation associated with the development of the 3M syndrome in Yakuts. The developed approach enables one to design graphene oxide-based test systems suitable for the diagnosis of any point mutations in native DNA.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):87-91
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Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions

Lebedev V.G., Faskhiev V.N., Kovalenko N.P., Shestibratov K.A., Miroshnikov A.I.


Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):92-101
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Cytomegalovirus in Plasma of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

Nikitskaya E.A., Grivel J.C., Maryukhnich E.V., Lebedeva A.M., Ivanova O.I., Savvinova P.P., Shpektor A.V., Margolis L.B., Vasilieva E.Y.


The relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and local and systemic inflammation, including accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and upregulation of blood cytokines (e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP)), has been known for more than 100 years. The atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory response has been traditionally considered as an immune system reaction to low-density lipoproteins. At the same time, some data have indicated a potential involvement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the activation and progression of atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, leading to ACS. However, these data have been tangential and mainly concerned the relationship between a coronary artery disease (CAD) prognosis and the anti-CMV antibody titer. We assumed that ACS might be associated with CMV reactivation and virus release into the bloodstream. The study’s aim was to test this assumption through a comparison of the plasma CMV DNA level in patients with various CAD forms and in healthy subjects. To our knowledge, no similar research has been undertaken yet. A total of 150 subjects (97 CAD patients and 53 healthy subjects) were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the number of plasma CMV DNA copies. We demonstrated that the number of plasma CMV genome copies in ACS patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (p = 0.01). The CMV genome copy number was correlated with the plasma CRP level (p = 0.002). These findings indicate a potential relationship between CMV activation and atherosclerosis exacerbation that, in turn, leads to the development of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. Monitoring of the CMV plasma level in CAD patients may be helpful in the development of new therapeutic approaches to coronary atherosclerosis treatment.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):102-107
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Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase by Nucleic Acid Metabolite 7-Methylguanine

Nilov D.K., Tararov V.I., Kulikov A.V., Zakharenko A.L., Gushchina I.V., Mikhailov S.N., Lavrik O.I., Švedas V.K.


The ability of 7-methylguanine, a nucleic acid metabolite, to inhibit poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-2 (PARP-2) has been identified in silico and studied experimentally.The amino group at position 2 and the methyl group at position 7 were shown to be important substituents for the efficient binding of purine derivatives to PARPs. The activity of both tested enzymes, PARP-1 and PARP-2, was suppressed by 7-methylguanine with IC50 values of 150 and 50 μM, respectively. At the PARP inhibitory concentration, 7-methylguanine itself was not cytotoxic, but it was able to accelerate apoptotic death of BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cells induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin, the widely used DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. 7-Methylguanine possesses attractive predictable pharmacokinetics and an adverse-effect profile and may be considered as a new additive to chemotherapeutic treatment.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):108-115
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A Fusion Protein Based on the Second Subunit of Hemagglutinin of Influenza A/H2N2 Viruses Provides Cross Immunity

Stepanova L.A., Sergeeva M.V., Shuklina M.A., Shaldzhyan A.A., Potapchuk M.V., Korotkov A.V., Tsybalova L.M.


Conserved fragments of the second subunit of hemagglutinin (HA2) are of great interest for the design of vaccine constructs that can provide protective immunity against influenza A viruses of different subtypes. A recombinant fusion protein, FlgMH, was constructed on the basis of flagellin and a highly conserved HA2 fragment (35-107) of influenza viruses of the subtype A/H2N2, containing B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell epitopes. The native conformation of the HA2 fragment was partially preserved upon its attachment to the C-terminus of flagellin within the recombinant fusion protein FlgMH. FlgMH was shown to stimulate a mixed Th1/Th2 response of cross-reactive antibodies, which bind to influenza viruses of the first phylogenetic group (H1, H2, H5), to the target sequence as well as the induction of specific cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+IFNγ+). Immunization with the recombinant protein protected animals from a lethal influenza infection. The developed FlgMH protein is a promising agent that may be included in an influenza vaccine with a wide spectrum of action which will be able to stimulate the T and B cell immune responses.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):116-126
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Decrease in the Sensitivity of Myocardium to M3 Muscarinic Receptor Stimulation during Postnatal Ontogenisis

Tapilina S.V., Abramochkin D.V.


Type 3 muscarinic receptors (M3 receptors) participate in the mediation of cholinergic effects in mammalian myocardium, along with M2 receptors. However, myocardium of adult mammals demonstrates only modest electrophysiological effects in response to selective stimulation of M3 receptors which are hardly comparable to the effects produced by M2 stimulation. In the present study, the effects of selective M3 stimulation induced by application of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10 μM) in the presence of the selective M2 blocker methoctramine (100 nM) on the action potential (AP) waveform were investigated in isolated atrial and ventricular preparations from newborn and 3-week-old rats and compared to those in preparations from adult rats. In the atrial myocardium, stimulation of M3 receptors produced a comparable reduction of AP duration in newborn and adult rats, while in 3-week-old rats the effect was negligible. In ventricular myocardial preparations from newborn rats, the effect of M3 stimulation was more than 3 times stronger compared to that from adult rats, while preparations from 3-week old rats demonstrated no definite effect, similarly to atrial preparations. In all studied types of cardiac preparations, the effects of M3 stimulation were eliminated by the selective M3 antagonist 4-DAMP (10 nM). The results of RT-PCR show that the amount of product of the M3 receptor gene decreases with the maturation of animals both in atrial and ventricular myocardium. We concluded that the contribution of M3 receptors to the mediation of cardiac cholinergic responses decreases during postnatal ontogenesis. These age-related changes may be associated with downregulation of M3 receptor gene expression.

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):127-131
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Biological Collections: Chasing the Ideal

Kamenski P.A., Sazonov A.E., Fedyanin A.A., Sadovnichy V.A.


This article is based on the results of an analysis of existing biological collections in Russia and abroad set up in the framework of the project “Scientific Basis of the National Biobank – Depository of Living Systems” by M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University [1].

Acta Naturae. 2016;8(2):6-9
pages 6-9 views

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