Vol 10, No 2 (2018)


Hypertension and Cerebral Microangiopathy (Cerebral Small Vessel Disease): Genetic and Epigenetic Aspects of Their Relationship

Dobrynina L.A., Zabitova M.R., Kalashnikova L.A., Gnedovskaya E.V., Piradov M.A.


Hypertension (HT) and its cerebral complications are extremely vexing medical and social problems. Despite the obvious association between hypertension and the clinical and neuroimaging features of cerebral microangiopathy (CMA) (also known as cerebral small vessel disease), the causal links between them remain ambiguous. Besides, antihypertensive therapy as the only way to manage these patients does not always prevent brain damage. Knowledge about the key factors and mechanisms involved in HT and CMA development is important for predicting the risk of cerebral complications and developing new approaches to their prevention and treatment. At present, genome-wide association studies and other approaches are used to investigate the common hereditary mechanisms of HT and CMA development, which will explain a large number of CMA cases not associated with hypertension, lack of a correlation between HT severity and the degree of cerebral injury, and failure of antihypertensive therapy to prevent CMA progression. Epigenetic markers likely play a modulating role in the development of these diseases.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):4-15
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Molecular Approaches to Safe and Controlled Engineered T-cell Therapy

Kalinin R.S., Petukhov A.V., Knorre V.D., Maschan M.A., Stepanov A.V., Gabibov A.G.


Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) is one of the fastest developing areas of immuno-oncology. Over the past decade, it has revolutionized the cell therapy modality and expedited its pace of development, from optimization of the structure of chimeric antigen receptors and animal model experiments to successful clinical application. The initial designs of the CAR configuration focused on increasing T-cell activation, cytotoxicity, and persistence. However, the first attempts to treat patients with CAR T cells have demonstrated the need for increased safety and controlled activation of genetically modified T cells. Herein, we summarize the different molecular approaches to engineering chimeric antigen receptors for reducing the potential clinical risks of T-cell therapy.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):16-23
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Organism-Level Tumor Models in Zebrafish Danio rerio

Mizgirev I.V., Safina D.R., Demidyuk I.V., Kostrov S.V.


Development and implementation of adequate organism-level models is one of the key elements in biomedical research that focuses on experimental oncology. Over the last decade, studies using Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained in popularity in this area of research. This review describes the various approaches that have been used in developing highly effective models for oncological (clinical term, better cancer or tumor) studies based on D. rerio. Priority is given to transplantation models of cancer and their application to optically transparent D. rerio lines, including clonal ones, and utilization tumors of various origins bearing fluorescent labels. The combination of tumor transplantation at organism-level models in transparent clonal D. rerio lines with fluorescent microscopy, FACS-fractionation of tumor cell subsets, and transcription analysis can result in one of the most promising research approaches in providing new information on tumor formation and growth.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):24-29
pages 24-29 views

Research Articles

The Development and Study of Recombinant Immunoglobulin A to Hemagglutinins of the Influenza Virus

Aliev T.K., Dement’yeva I.G., Toporova V.A., Argentova V.V., Pozdnyakova L.P., Bokov M.N., Votchitseva Y.A., Dolgikh D.A., Varfolomeyev S.D., Sveshnikov P.G., Kirpichnikov M.P.


We obtained recombinant variants of human antibody FI6 broadly specific to hemagglutinins of the influenza A virus. On the basis of a bi-promoter (CMV, hEF1-HTLV) vector, we developed genetic constructs for the expression of the heavy and light chains of the immunoglobulins of IgA1-, IgA2m1-, and IgG-isotypes. Following transfection and selection, stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines were produced. The antibodies of IgA1-, IgA2m1-, and IgG-isotypes were purified from culture media. We performed an immunochemical characterization and studied their interactions with influenza A strains of the H1N1- and H3N2-subtypes. It was shown that recombinant FI6 variants of the IgA-isotype retain the properties of the parental IgG antibody to demonstrate specificity to all the strains tested. The strongest binding was observed for the H1N1 subtype, which belongs to hemagglutinins of phylogenetic group I.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):30-36
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Cognitive Tagging of Neurons: CREMediated Genetic Labeling and Characterization of the Cells Involved in Learning and Memory

Ivashkina O.I., Vorobyeva N.S., Gruzdeva A.M., Roshchina M.A., Toropova K.A., Anokhin K.V.


In this study, we describe use of Cre-mediated recombination to obtain a permanent genetic labeling of the brain neuronal networks activated during a new experience in animals. This method utilizes bitransgenic Fos-Cre-eGFP mice in which a green fluorescent protein is expressed upon tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombination only in the cells where immediate early gene c-fos expression takes place due to the new experience. We used the classical fear conditioning model to show that ex vivo microscopy of the eGFP protein in Fos-Cre-eGFP mice enables mapping of the neurons of the various brain regions that undergo Cre-recombination during acquisition of a new experience. We exposed the animals to the new environment in brief sessions and demonstrated that double immunohistochemical staining enables a characterization of the types of neocortical and hippocampal neurons that undergo experience-dependent Cre-recombination. Notably, Fos-Cre-eGFP labeled cells appeared to belong to excitatory pyramidal neurons rather than to various types of inhibitory neurons. We also showed that a combination of genetic Cre-eGFP labeling with immunohistochemical staining of the endogenous c-Fos protein allows one to identify and compare the neuronal populations that are activated during two different episodes of new experiences in the same animal. This new approach can be used in a wide spectrum of tasks that require imaging and a comparative analysis of cognitive neuronal networks.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):37-47
pages 37-47 views

Characterization of the T-cell Repertoire after Autologous HSCT in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Komech E.A., Zvyagin I.V., Pogorelyy M.V., Mamedov I.Z., Fedorenko D.A., Lebedev Y.B.


Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a safer type of HSCT than allogeneic HSCT, is a promising therapy for patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs). Despite the long history of medical practice, structural changes in the adaptive immune system as a result of autologous HSCT in patients with various types of ADs remain poorly understood. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the structural changes in the peripheral blood T-cell repertoire in adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) during two years after autologous HSCT. The implementation of unique molecular identifiers allowed us to substantially reduce the impact of the biases occurring during the preparation of libraries, to carry out a comparative analysis of the various properties of the T-cell repertoire between different time points, and to track the dynamics of both distinct T-cell clonotypes and T-cell subpopulations. In the first year of the reconstitution, clonal diversity of the T-cell repertoire remained lower than the initial one in both patients. During the second year after HSCT, clonal diversity continued to increase and reached a normal value in one of the patients. The increase in the diversity was associated with the emergence of a large number of low-frequency clonotypes, which were not identified before HSCT. Efficiency of clonotypes detection after HSCT was dependent on their abundance in the initial repertoire. Almost all of the 100 most abundant clonotypes observed before HSCT were detected 2 years after transplantation and remained highly abundant irrespective of their CD4+ or CD8+ phenotype. A total of up to 25% of peripheral blood T cells 2 years after HSCT were represented by clonotypes from the initial repertoire.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):48-57
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1-(4-Phenoxybenzyl) 5-Aminouracil Derivatives and Their Analogues - Novel Inhibitors of Human Adenovirus Replication

Nikitenko N.A., Gureeva E.S., Ozerov A.A., Tukhvatulin A.I., Izhaeva F.M., Prassolov V.S., Deryabin P.G., Novikov M.S., Logunov D.Y.


Adenovirus infections are characterized by widespread distribution. The lack of causal therapy, which is effective in treating this group of diseases, explains the need for new therapeutic drugs. Notably, anti-adenoviral activity of [4-(phenoxy)benzyl]-5-(phenylamino)-6-azauracil, 1-[4-(phenoxy)benzyl]-5-(morpholino) uracil, 1-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)benzyl]-5-(morpholino) uracil, and 1-[4-(4-fluorophenoxy)-benzyl]-5-(morpholino) uracil was observed.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):58-64
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Reversible Cyclic Thermal Inactivation of Oligopeptidase B from Serratia proteamaculans

Оvchinnikova M.V., Mikhailova A.G., Karlinsky D.M., Gorlenko V.А., Rumsh L.D.


A unique property was found for oligopeptidase B from Serratia proteamaculans (PSP) as well as its mutants: they can undergo reversible thermal inactivation at 37°C, with activity being restored or even increased with respect to the initial one upon subsequent cooling. The process can be repeated several times, with the same results achieved (up to 5 cycles). This effect can be explained by a shift in the equilibrium between the inactive open form of the enzyme and the active closed one upon variation of the incubation temperature.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):65-70
pages 65-70 views

Soluble Guanylate Cyclase As the Key Enzyme in the Modulating Effect of NO on Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

Ryzhova I.V., Nozdrachev A.D., Tobias T.V., Vershinina E.A.


The synaptic plasticity of the afferent synapse of the vestibular apparatus is defined by the dynamic interaction of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors and the modulators of synaptic transmission. It was shown that nitric oxide modulates iGluR responses. In this paper, the effect of NO on the function of the afferent synapse mGluR was investigated. Inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered the level of background activity but increased the amplitude of the responses of groups I and II mGluR agonist ACPD. Donor NO SNAP increased the level of background activity. Short-term perfusion of the synaptic region with low concentrations of SNAP led to a decrease in the amplitude of the answers of mGluR agonists ACPD and DHPG. The inhibitory effect of the NO donor was eliminated under blockade of soluble guanylate cyclase with a specific inhibitor ODQ. A prolonged application of NO did not cause a statistically significant change in the amplitude of the ACPD response. However, SNAP at concentrations of 10 and 100 μM increased the amplitude of the mGluR agonist responses 30 and 15 minutes, respectively, after termination of the NO donor exposure. The obtained data show the multidirectional effect of NO on the function of mGluR and testify to the existence of a complex modulating mechanism of the afferent flow from vestibular organs to the central nervous system.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):71-78
pages 71-78 views

Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Typing of Trichothecene-Producing Fusarium Fungi from Russian Collections

Stakheev A.A., Samokhvalova L.V., Mikityuk O.D., Zavriev S.K.


We performed a three-locus phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium strains presumably capable of trichothecene production, which were deposited in the Russian national collections. The intra- and interspecific polymorphism of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene and two genes from the trichothecene cluster TRI5 and TRI14 was studied. A study of 60 strains of different origins using DNA markers confirmed, and in the case for several strains, clarified their taxonomic characteristics. As a result, a strain of F. commune (F-900) was identified in Russia for the first time. Furthermore, the strain F-846 proved to be phylogenetically distinct from any of the known Fusarium species. F. equiseti strains from Northwest Russia were found to belong to the North European group (I), whereas a strain from the North Caucasus - to the South European one (II). Partial TRI14 sequences from 9 out of 12 species were determined for the first time. Their comparative analysis demonstrated a relatively high level of intraspecific variability in F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides, but no correlation between the sequence polymorphism and the geographic origin of the strains or their chemotype was found. Specific chemotypes of trichothecene B producers were characterized using two primer sets. The chemotyping results were verified by HPLC.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):79-92
pages 79-92 views

ATP Reduces the Entry of Calcium Ions into the Nerve Ending by Blocking L-type Calcium Channels

Khaziev E.F., Samigullin D.V., Tsentsevitsky A.N., Bukharaeva E.A., Nikolsky E.E.


At neuromuscular junctions, ATP inhibits both the evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release and inward calcium current operating via presynaptic P2Y receptors. It was shown in the experiments with the frog neuromuscular synapse using specific calcium-sensitive dye Oregon Green Bapta 1 that exogenous ATP reduces the amplitude of calcium transient, which reflects the changes in the entry of calcium ions in response to the nerve pulse. The depressing effect of ATP on the transient was prevented by suramin, the blocker of P2 receptors. Nitrendipine, a specific blocker of L-type calcium channels, per se decreased the calcium transient amplitude and significantly attenuated the effect of ATP on the calcium signal. Contrariwise, the preliminary application of ATP to the neuromuscular junction completely eliminated the depressing effect of nitrendipine on the calcium response. The obtained data suggest that an essential component in the inhibitory action of ATP on the calcium transient amplitude is provided by reduction of the entry of calcium ions into a frog nerve ending via L-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):93-96
pages 93-96 views

Role of the Scaffold Protein MIM in the Actin-Dependent Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC)

Shuyskiy L.S., Levchenko V.V., Negulyaev Y.A., Staruschenko A.V., Ilatovskaya D.V.


Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) are expressed in different organs and tissues, particularly in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the kidney, where they fine tune sodium reabsorption. Dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton are one of the common mechanisms of ENaC activity regulation. In our previous studies, we showed that the actin-binding proteins cortactin and Arp2/3 complex are involved in the cytoskeleton-dependent regulation of ENaC and that their cooperative work decreases a channel’s probability of remaining open; however, the specific mechanism of interaction between actin-binding proteins and ENaC is unclear. In this study, we propose a new component for the protein machinery involved in the regulation of ENaC, the missing-in-metastasis (MIM) protein. The MIM protein contains an IMD domain (for interaction with PIP2 -rich plasma membrane regions and Rac GTPases; this domain also possesses F-actin bundling activity), a PRD domain (for interaction with cortactin), and a WH2 domain (interaction with G-actin). The patch-clamp electrophysiological technique in whole-cell configuration was used to test the involvement of MIM in the actin-dependent regulation of ENaC. Co-transfection of ENaC subunits with the wild-type MIM protein (or its mutant forms) caused a significant reduction in ENaC-mediated integral ion currents. The analysis of the F-actin structure after the transfection of MIM plasmids showed the important role played by the domains PRD and WH2 of the MIM protein in cytoskeletal rearrangements. These results suggest that the MIM protein may be a part of the complex of actin-binding proteins which is responsible for the actin-dependent regulation of ENaC in the CCD.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(2):97-103
pages 97-103 views

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