Vol 3, No 2 (2011)


Letter from the Editors

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Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):1-1
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Boosting Class

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Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):6-8
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Collaboration between Russian and U.S. Scientists in Biomedical Research

Danilenko V.N.


During the past two decades, tens of thousands of Russian scientists, including leading researchers in the field of biomedicine, have left Russia to work abroad. Some scientists maintained contact with institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS); however, such interactions were usually initiated by the scientist. Recently, there has been a shift in the pattern of international collaboration; the meeting between the representatives of the National Institute of Health (USA) and the Russian Academy of Sciences, held on April 25-26, 2011, in Moscow, is evidence of this change.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):9-12
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Promoters with Cancer Cell-Specific Activity for Melanoma Gene Therapy

Pleshkan V.V., Alekseenko I.V., Zinovyeva M.V., Vinogradova T.V., Sverdlov E.D.


Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors. It develops from pigment-forming cells (melanocytes) and results in a high number of lethal outcomes. The use of genetic constructs with the ability to specifically kill melanoma cells, but not normal cells, might increase the lifespan of patients, as well as improve their quality of life. One of the methods to achieve a selective impact for therapeutic genes on cancer cells is to utilize a transcriptional control mechanism using promoters that are specifically activated only in cancerous cells. In this review, promoters of the genes that are preferentially expressed in melanoma cells are described. These promoters, and other highly melanoma-specific regulatory elements, reduce the unspecific expression of therapeutic genes in normal tissues. Moreover, cancer-specific promoters and their elements are advantageous for the development of universal anticancer drugs. Examples of the use of double promoters that have a high potential as instruments in cancer gene therapy are also given in this review.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):13-21
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Posttranslational Modifications of Ribosomal Proteins in Escherichia coli

Nesterchuk M.V., Sergiev P.V., Dontsova O.A.


A number of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli undergo posttranslational modifications. Six ribosomal proteins are methylated (S11, L3, L11, L7/L12, L16, and L33), three proteins are acetylated (S5, S18, and L7), and protein S12 is methylthiolated. Extra amino acid residues are added to protein S6. C-terminal amino acid residues are partially removed from protein L31. The functional significance of these modifications has remained unclear. These modifications are not vital to the cells, and it is likely that they have regulatory functions. This paper reviews all the known posttranslational modifications of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli. Certain enzymes responsible for the modifications and mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are also discussed
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):22-33
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Gold Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine: Recent Advances and Prospects

Dykman L.A., Khlebtsov N.G.


Functionalized gold nanoparticles with controlled geometrical and optical properties are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications, including genomics, cheap replica skeleton watches biosensorics, immunoassays, clinical chemistry, laser phototherapy of cancer cells and tumors, the targeted delivery of drugs, DNA and antigens, optical bioimaging and the monitoring of cells and tissues with the use of state-of-the-art detection systems. This work will provide an overview of the recent advances and current challenges facing the biomedical application of gold nanoparticles of various sizes, shapes, and structures. The review is focused on how to tell if rolex is real or fakethe application of gold nanoparticle conjugates in biomedical diagnostics and analytics, photothermal and photodynamic therapies, as a carrier for delivering target molecules, and on the immunological and toxicological properties. Keeping in mind the huge volume and high speed of the data update rate, 2/3 of our reference list (certainly restricted to 250 Refs.) includes wimbledon rolex replica for sale publications encompassing the past 5 years.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):34-55
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Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination

Stepanov V.A., Balanovsky O.P., Melnikov A.V., Lash-Zavada A.Y., Khar'kov V.N., Tyazhelova T.V., Akhmetova V.L., Zhukova O.V., Shneider Y.V., Shil'nikova I.N., Borinskaya S.A., Marusin A.V., Spiridonova M.G., Simonova K.V., Khitrinskaya I.Y., Radzhabov M.O., Romanov A.G., Shtygasheva В O.V., Koshel' S.M., Balanovskaya E.V., Rybakova A.V., Khusnutdinova E.K., Puzyrev V.P., Yankovsky N.K.


Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and interpopulation genetic differentiation of population; genetic relations between populations; and the identification and forensic medical characteristics of the system of markers under study were determined. Significant differences were revealed between the Russian populations and the U.S. reference base that was used recently in the forensic medical examination of the RF. A database of the allelic frequencies of 15 microsatellite loci that are used for DNA identification and forensic medical examination was created; the database has the potential of becoming the reference for performing forensic medical examinations in Russia. The spatial organization of genetic diversity over the panel of the STR markers that are used for DNA identification was revealed. It represents the general regularities of geographical clusterization of human populations over various types of genetic markers. The necessity to take into account a population’s genetic structure during forensic medical examinations and DNA identification of criminal suspects was substantiated.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):56-67
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N-Terminal Moiety of Antimicrobial Peptide Ltc1-K Increases its Toxicity for Eukaryotic Cells

Samsonova O.V., Kudryashova K.S., Feofanov A.V.


The antimicrobial peptide Ltc1-K and its derivates without one, two, then three N-terminal amino acid residues were studied based on the hypothesis (backed by some experimental data) that the hydrophobic N-terminal moiety of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides defines their haemolytic activity. It was discovered that the excision of three N-terminal amino acid residues considerably decreases the peptide’s toxicity for eukaryotic cells and simultaneously increases the selectivity of antibacterial activity for some bacteria species. Studies performed with the model membrane systems and human erythrocytes revealed that the main reason for the observed effect is a multifold decrease in the peptide’s affinity to an eukaryotic cellular membrane enriched with zwitterionic phospholipids.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):68-78
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Reconstruction of Purine Metabolism in Bacillus subtilis to Obtain the Strain Producer of AICAR: A New Drug with a Wide Range of Therapeutic Applications

Lobanov K.V., Errais Lopes L., Korol'kova N.V., Tyaglov B.V., Glazunov A.V., Shakulov R.S., Mironov A.S.


AICAR is a natural compound, an analogue and precursor of adenosine. As activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), AICAR has a broad therapeutic potential, since it normalizes the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells. The synthesis of AICAR in Bacillus subtilis cells is controlled by the enzymes of purine biosynthesis; their genes constituting purine operon (pur-operon). Reconstruction of purine metabolism in B. subtilis was performed to achieve overproduction of AICAR. For this purpose, the gene purH, which encodes formyltransferase/IMP-cyclohydrolase, an enzyme that controls the conversion of AICAR to IMP, was removed from the B. subtilis genome, ensuring the accumulation of AICAR. An insertion inactivating the gene purR that encodes the negative transcriptional regulator of the purine biosynthesis operon was introduced into the B.subtilis chromosome in order to boost the production of AICAR; the transcription attenuator located in the leader sequence of pur-operon was deleted. Furthermore, the expression integrative vector carrying a strong promoter of the rpsF gene encoding the ribosomal protein S6 was designed. The heterologous Escherichia coli gene purF encoding the first enzyme of the biosynthesis of purines with impaired allosteric regulation, as well as the modified E.coli gene prs responsible for the synthesis of the precursor of purines - phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) - was cloned into this vector under the control of the rpsF gene promoter. The modified purF and prs genes were inserted into the chromosome of the B. subtilis strain. B. subtilis strain obtained by these genetic manipulations accumulates 11-13 g/L of AICAR in the culture fluid.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):79-89
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Dimeric Structure of the Transmembrane Domain of Glycophorin A in Lipidic and Detergent Environments

Mineev K.S., Bocharov E.V., Volynsky P.E., Goncharuk M.V., Tkach E.N., Ermolyuk Y.S., Schulga A.A., Chupin V.V., Maslennikov I.V., Efremov R.G., Arseniev A.S.


Specific interactions between transmembrane α-helices, to a large extent, determine the biological function of integral membrane proteins upon normal development and in pathological states of an organism. Various membrane-like media, partially those mimicking the conditions of multicomponent biological membranes, are used to study the structural and thermodynamic features that define the character of oligomerization of transmembrane helical segments. The choice of the composition of the membrane-mimicking medium is conducted in an effort to obtain a biologically relevant conformation of the protein complex and a sample that would be stable enough to allow to perform a series of long-term experiments with its use. In the present work, heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations were used to demonstrate that the two most widely used media (detergent DPC micelles and lipid DMPC/DHPC bicelles) enable to perform structural studies of the specific interactions between transmembrane a-helices by the example of dimerizing the transmembrane domain of the bitopic protein glycophorin A. However, a number of peculiarities place lipid bicelles closer to natural lipid bilayers in terms of their physical properties.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):90-98
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Relationship between the Pathogenic Representatives of Periodontal Pockets Microbiocenosis in Patients with Periodontitis with Varying Degrees of Severity

Zorina O.A., Kulakov A.A., Boriskina O.A., Rebrikov D.V.


Periodontitis is a common disease that is considered to be a manifestation of the distortion of the ratio between the normal and conditionally pathogenic microflora of periodontal pockets. In this study, the ratio between the six most important periodontal pathogens and the total microflora of the periodontal pocket in healthy individuals and patients with varying severity of periodontitis was ascertained by quantitative real-time PCR. It was ascertained that the relative content of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus) persistently develops in the total microflora of the periodontal pocket upon progressing periodontitis; this value is higher than that in the control group by more than two orders of magnitude upon a severe degree of chronic generalized periodontitis.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):99-102
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The Effects of P 2-Adrenoreceptor Activation on the Contractility, Ca-Signals and Nitric Oxide Production in the Mouse Atria

Odnoshivkina Y.G., Petrov A.M., Zefirov A.L.


The effects of the selective P 2-adrenoreceptor agonist (fenoterol) on the functioning of mouse atrial were studied using both tensometry and fluorescent methods. It has been demonstrated that with the use of a high concentration of fenoterol (in the range of 1-50 μM), there is a more significant positive inotropic effect observed within a shorter period of time. In the case of relatively low doses of fenoterol (1 and 5 μM), its contractility effects are observed 20 min after the application of agonist, whereby in the case of high concentrations (25, 50 and 300 μM), the effects appear within the first minutes. During the first 10-15 min, 5 μM fenoterol causes an increase in the amplitude of Ca-signals in cardiomyocytes (this indicates an increase in the concentration of Ca ions during systole) and the activation of NO synthesis. However, after 20 min, the production of NO decreases; while the amplitude of Ca-signals remains high. The application of 50 μM fenoterol leads to a rapid increase in the amplitude of Ca-signals: at the same time, it causes a decrease in the production of NO, which we found to begin to increase after 10 min of agonist application. It is suggested that the dynamics of the positive inotropic effect occurring under pharmacological stimulation of β 2-adrenoreceptors depend on the rate of increase in the amplitude of Ca-signals and on the degree of NO synthesis.
Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):103-112
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Guidelines for Authors

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Acta Naturae. 2011;3(2):113-114
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