Vol 6, No 2 (2014)


Disruption of the Colonization Resistance Syndrome in Humans in Altered Habitats and Its Prevention

Ilyin V.K., Kiryukhina N.V.


Exposure of human subjects to environments with modified parameters is associated with reduced colonization resistance of the intestine and epithelial tissue, which leads to dysbiotic changes. Probiotics - preparations based on protective microflora - are used to correct dysbacteriosis of different etiologies and localizations. However, the effectiveness of probiotics largely depends on the adhesive ability of a probiotic strain and lack of competitive relations with the indigenous microflora, which can be achieved by individual selection of a preparation. We propose to use autochtonous microflora as a probiotic drug to optimize the prevention and treatment results. A personalized approach to probiotic selection will improve therapy efficiency and reduce the risk of adverse effects in each individual patient.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):10-18
pages 10-18 views

Biotechnological approaches to creation of hypoxia and anoxia tolerant plants

Vartapetian B.B., Dolgikh Y.I., Polyakova L.I., Chichkova N.V., Vartapetian А.B.


The present work provides results of a number of biotechnological studies aimed at creating cell lines and entire plants resistant to anaerobic stress. Developed biotechnological approaches were based on earlier fundamental researches into anaerobic stress in plants, so “Introduction” briefly covers the importance of the problem and focuses on works considering two main strategies of plants adaptation to anaerobic stress. Those are adaptation at molecular level where key factor is anaerobic metabolism of energy (true tolerance) and adaptation of the entire plant via formation of aerenchyma and facilitated transportation of oxygen (apparent tolerance). Thus, sugarcane and wheat cells resistant to anaerobic stress were obtained through consecutive in vitro selection under conditions of anoxia and absence of exogenous carbohydrates. Tolerant wheat cells were used to regenerate entire plants of higher resistance to root anaerobiosis. It has been demonstrated that cells tolerance to anoxia is significantly supported by their ability to utilize exogenous nitrate. Cells tolerance established itself at the genetic level and was inherited by further generations. Apart from that, other successful attempts to increase tolerance of plants to anaerobic stress by means of stimulation of glycolysis and overexpression of genes responsible for cytokinin synthesis and programmed cell death are also discussed. The presented data proved the notion of two main strategies of plants adaptation to anaerobic stress proposed earlier on the base of fundamental studies.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):19-30
pages 19-30 views

Research Articles

Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of a Novosvobodnaya Culture Representative using Next-Generation Sequencing and Its Relation to the Funnel Beaker Culture

Nedoluzhko A.V., Boulygina E.S., Sokolov A.S., Tsygankova S.V., Gruzdeva N.M., Rezepkin A.D., Prokhortchouk E.B.


The Novosvobodnaya culture is known as a Bronze Age archaeological culture in the North Caucasus region of Southern Russia. It dates back to the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. and seems to have occurred during the time of the Maikop culture. There are now two hypotheses about the emergence of the Novosvobodnaya culture. One hypothesis suggests that the Novosvobodnaya culture was a phase of the Maikop culture, whereas the other one classifies it as an independent event based on the material culture items found in graves. Comparison between Novosvobodnaya pottery and Funnelbeaker (TRB) pottery from Germany has allowed researchers to suggest that the Novosvobodnaya culture developed under the influence of Indo-European culture. Nevertheless, the origin of the Novosvobodnaya culture remains a matter of debate. We applied next-generation sequencing to study ~5000-year-old human remains from the Klady kurgan grave in Novosvobodnaya stanitsa (now the Republic of Adygea, Russia). A total of 58,771,105 reads were generated using Illumina GAIIx with a coverage depth of 13.4х over the mitochondrial (mt) DNA genome. The mtDNA haplogroup affiliation was determined as V7, suggesting a role of the TRB culture in the development of the Novosvobodnaya culture and supporting the model of sharing between Novosvobodnaya and early Indo-European cultures.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):31-35
pages 31-35 views

Real-Time Interaction between TVR and the TATA Box of the Human Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Promoter in the Norm and Pathology

Arkova O.V., Kuznetsov N.A., Fedorova O.S., Kolchanov N.A., Savinkova L.K.


The TATA-binding protein (ТВР) is a key part of the transcription complex of RNA polymerase II. Alone or as a part of the basal transcription factor TFIID, TBP binds the TATA box located in the core region of the TATA-containing promoters of class II genes. Previously, we studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ТВР/ТАТА-box interactions using gel retardation assay. It was demonstrated that most SNPs in the ТАТА boxes of some human gene promoters cause a 2- to 4-fold decrease in ТВР/ТАТА affinity, which is associated with an increased risk of hereditary diseases, such as β thalassemias of diverse severity, hemophilia B Leyden, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, lung cancer, etc. In this work, the process of ТВР/ТАТА complex formation has been studied in real time by a stopped-flow technique using recombinant human TBP and duplexes, which were identical to the TATA box of the wild-type and a SNP-containing triosephosphate isomerase gene promoter and were fluorescently labeled by the Cy3/Cy5 FRET pair. It has been demonstrated for the first time that real-time binding of ТВР to the TATA box of the TPI gene promoter is complete within 10 s and is described by a single-stage kinetic model. The complex formation of ТВР with the wild-type TATA box occurs 5.5 times faster and the complex dissociation occurs 31 times slower compared with the SNPcontaining TATA box. Within the first seconds of the interaction, ТВР binds to and simultaneously bends the TATA box. Importantly, the TATA box of the wild-type TPI gene promoter requires lower TBP concentrations compared to the TATA box containing the -24Т → G SNP, which is associated with neurological and muscular disorders, cardiomyopathy, and other diseases.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):36-40
pages 36-40 views

Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

Evfratov S.A., Smekalova E.M., Golovin A.V., Logvina N.A., Zvereva M.I., Dontsova O.A.


Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):41-47
pages 41-47 views

High-throughput Method of One-Step DNA Isolation for PCR Diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Kapustin D.V., Prostyakova A.I., Alexeev Y.I., Varlamov D.A., Zubov V.P., Zavriev S.K.


The efficiency of one-step and multi-step protocols of DNA isolation from lysed sputum samples containing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has been compared. DNA was isolated using spin-cartridges containing a special silica-based sorbent modified with fluoroplast and polyaniline, or using an automated isolation system. One-step isolation using the obtained sorbent has been shown to ensure a significantly lower DNA loss and higher sensitivity in the PCR detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to a system based on sorption and desorption of nucleic acids during the isolation.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):48-52
pages 48-52 views

The Drosophila agnostic Locus: Involvement in the Formation of Cognitive Defects in Williams Syndrome

Nikitina Е.А., Medvedeva A.V., Zakharov G.А., Savvateeva-Popova Е.V.


The molecular basis of the pathological processes that lead to genome disorders is similar both in invertebrates and mammals. Since cognitive impairments in Williams syndrome are caused by LIMK1 hemizygosity, could the spontaneous and mutant variants of the Drosophila limk1 gene serve as a model for studying two diagnostic features from three distinct cognitive defects of the syndrome? These two symptoms are the disturbance of visuospatial orientation and an unusualy strong fixation on the faces of other people during pairwise interaction with a stranger. An experimental approach to the first cognitive manifestation might be an analysis of the locomotor behavior of Drosophila larvae involving visuospatial orientation during the exploration of the surrounding environment. An approach to tackle the second manifestation might be an analysis of the most natural ways of contact between a male and a female during courtship (the first stage of this ritual is the orientation of a male towards a female and following the female with constant fixation on the female’s image). The present study of locomotor activity and cognitive repertoire in spontaneous and mutant variants of the Drosophila agnostic locus allows one to bridge alterations in the structure of the limk1 gene and behavior.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):53-61
pages 53-61 views

Cell Models for the Investigation of the Role of the Mucin MUC1 Extracellular Domain in Metastasizing

Syrkina M.S., Rubtsov M.A., Potashnikova D.M., Kondratenko Y.D., Dokrunova A.A., Veiko V.P.


The speculations on the role of MUC1, a substance which is overexpressed in glandular cancer cells, on the metastatic potential of such cells are rooted in data that seem to indicate that cell malignization correlates with a change from the apical localization of mucin MUC1 to a peripheral one. Nonetheless, the role of MUC1 in cancer metastasizing remains far from clear. The major hurdle remains the absence of adequate cell models. The aim of the present study was to create cell models that present different fragments of the human mucin MUC1 extracellular domain on their surface. Genetic constructions were generated on the basis of the plasmid vector pEGFP-N3. These constructions contain fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins composed of different combinations of mucin MUC1 functional domains and identification markers (FLAG-epitope, located at the N-terminus, and EGFP, located at the C-terminus of the chimeric proteins). These constructions were used for a stable transformation of HT-29 human cancer cells. The transformants obtained were characterized by flow cytometry. The low expression level of endogenous mucin MUC1 and the high expression level of recombinant proteins were confirmed by real-time PCR. The microscopic examination of the transformed cells confirmed the membrane localization of the fusion proteins. The resulting cell models could be used to investigate the role of the mucin MUC1 domains in cancer cell metastasizing. The obtained cells are used as an applicable model of MUC1-expressing cancers and might be used to study the role of different functional fragments of mucin MUC1 in metastasizing.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):62-70
pages 62-70 views

Analysis of the Placental Tissue Transcriptome of Normal and Preeclampsia Complicated Pregnancies

Trifonova E.A., Gabidulina T.V., Ershov N.I., Serebrova V.N., Vorozhishcheva A.Y., Stepanov V.A.


Preeclampsia is one of the most severe gestational complications which is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A growth in the incidence of severe and combined forms of the pathology has been observed in recent years. According to modern concepts, inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion into the spiral arteries of the uterus and development of the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in the placental tissue play the leading role in the development of preeclampsia, which is characterized by multipleorgan failure. In this regard, our work was aimed at studying the patterns of placental tissue transcriptome that are specific to females with PE and with physiological pregnancy, as well as identifying the potential promising biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of this pathology. We have identified 63 genes whose expression proved to differ significantly in the placental tissue of females with PE and with physiological pregnancy. A cluster of differentially expressed genes (DEG) whose expression level is increased in patients with preeclampsia includes not only the known candidate genes that have been identified in many other genome-wide studies (e.g., LEP, BHLHB2, SIGLEC6, RDH13, BCL6), but also new genes (ANKRD37, SYDE1, CYBA, ITGB2, etc.), which can be considered as new biological markers of preeclampsia and are of further interest. The results of a functional annotation of DEG show that the development of preeclampsia may be related to a stress response, immune processes, the regulation of cell-cell interactions, intracellular signaling cascades, etc. In addition, the features of the differential gene expression depending on preeclampsia severity were revealed. We have found evidence of the important role of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the failure of immunological tolerance and initiation of the pro-inflammatory cascade in the development of severe preeclampsia. The results obtained elaborate the concept of the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and contain the information necessary to work out measures for targeted therapy of this disease.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):71-83
pages 71-83 views

Lipid-Protein Nanodiscs Offer New Perspectives for Structural and Functional Studies of Water-Soluble Membrane-Active Peptides

Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N., Paramonov A.S., Panteleev P.V., Balandin S.V., Shulepko M.A., Mineev K.S., Ovchinnikova T.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S.


Lipid-protein nanodiscs (LPNs) are nanoscaled fragments of a lipid bilayer stabilized in solution by the apolipoprotein or a special membrane scaffold protein (MSP). In this work, the applicability of LPN-based membrane mimetics in the investigation of water-soluble membrane-active peptides was studied. It was shown that a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide arenicin-2 from marine lugworm (charge of +6) disintegrates LPNs containing both zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) and anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) lipids. In contrast, the spider toxin VSTx1 (charge of +3), a modifier of Kv channel gating, effectively binds to the LPNs containing anionic lipids (POPC/DOPG, 3 : 1) and does not cause their disruption. VSTx1 has a lower affinity to LPNs containing zwitterionic lipids (POPC), and it weakly interacts with the protein component of nanodiscs, MSP (charge of -6). The neurotoxin II (NTII, charge of +4) from cobra venom, an inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, shows a comparatively low affinity to LPNs containing anionic lipids (POPC/DOPG, 3 : 1 or POPC/DOPS, 4 : 1), and it does not bind to LPNs/POPC. The obtained data show that NTII interacts with the LPN/POPC/DOPS surface in several orientations, and that the exchange process among complexes with different topologies proceeds fast on the NMR timescale. Only one of the possible NTII orientations allows for the previously proposed specific interaction between the toxin and the polar head group of phosphatidylserine from the receptor environment (Lesovoy et al., Biophys. J. 2009. V. 97. № 7. P. 2089-2097). These results indicate that LPNs can be used in structural and functional studies of water-soluble membrane-active peptides (probably except pore-forming ones) and in studies of the molecular mechanisms of peptide-membrane interaction.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):84-94
pages 84-94 views

Construction of a pIX-modified Adenovirus Vector Able to Effectively Bind to Nanoantibodies for Targeting

Garas M.N., Tillib S.V., Zubkova O.V., Rogozhin V.N., Ivanova T.I., Vasilev L.A., Logunov D.Y., Shmarov M.M., Tutykhina I.L., Esmagambetov I.B., Gribova I.Y., Bandelyuk A.S., Naroditsky B.S., Gintsburg A.L.


Current targeting strategies for genetic vectors imply the creation of a specific vector for every targeted receptor, which is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, the development of a universal vector system whose surface can specifically bind molecules to provide efficient targeting is of particular interest. In this study, we propose a new approach in creating targeted vectors based on the genome of human adenovirus serotype 5 carrying the modified gene of the capsid protein pIX (Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER): recombinant pseudoadenoviral nanoparticles (RPANs). The surfaces of such RPANs are able to bind properly modified chimeric nanoantibodies that specifically recognize a particular target antigen (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)) with high affinity. The efficient binding of nanoantibodies (аСЕА-RE) to the RPAN capsid surfaces has been demonstrated by ELISA. The ability of the constructed vector to deliver target genes has been confirmed by experiments with the tumor cell lines A549 and Lim1215 expressing CEA. It has been shown that Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER carrying аСЕА-RE on its surface penetrates into the tumor cell lines A549 and Lim1215 via the CAR-independent pathway three times more efficiently than unmodified RPAN and Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER without nanoantibodies on the capsid surface. Thus, RPAN Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER is a universal platform that may be useful for targeted gene delivery in specific cells due to “nanoantibody-modified RPAN” binding.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):95-105
pages 95-105 views

Optimization of the Protocol for the Isolation and Refolding of the Extracellular Domain of HER2 Expressed in Escherichia coli

Dolgikh V.V., Senderskiy I.V., Tetz G.V., Tetz V.V.


Receptor 2 of the human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu, c-erbB2) is a 185 kDa proto-oncogene protein characterized by an overexpression in some oncological diseases, including 30% of mammary glands cancers, as well as tumors in the ovary, stomach and other organs of the human body. Since HER2- tumor status testing is the essential part of a successful cancer treatment, the expression and purification of substantial amounts of the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER2 is an important task. The production of ECD HER2 in Escherichia coli has several advantages over the use of eukaryotic expression systems, but the bulk of the recombinant product in bacteria accumulates as insoluble protein inclusion bodies. In this study, we obtained ECD HER2 in Escherichia coli as insoluble inclusion bodies and elaborated a simple, efficient, and fast protocol for the solubilization, refolding, and isolation of the protein in soluble form.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):106-109
pages 106-109 views

The Effect of Melaxen on the Activity of Caspases and the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Toxic Liver Injury

Popov S.S., Shulgin K.K., Pashkov A.N., Agarkov A.A.


A comparative study of the activity of caspase-1 and caspase-3, the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) and a study of DNA fragmentation in the blood serum of patients with chronic alcoholic hepatitis during basic treatment and combination therapy including melaxen have been carried out. It was found that the blood serum level of reduced glutathione, which decreases in pathology, increased more significantly in patients receiving melaxen as compared to the group of patients receiving the standard treatment. More significant changes in the activity of caspase-1 and caspase-3, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase toward the control values were observed during the combination therapy. The correction in the melatonin level under the influence of melaxen apparently had a positive effect on the free-radical homeostasis in patients, which resulted in more pronounced changes in the investigated parameters towards the normal values as compared to the basic treatment.

Acta Naturae. 2014;6(2):110-118
pages 110-118 views

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