Vol 10, No 3 (2018)


Experimental Models of Spinal Cord Injury in Laboratory Rats

Minakov A.N., Chernov A.S., Asutin D.S., Konovalov N.A., Telegin G.B.


Pathologies associated with spinal cord injury are some of the leading diseases in the world. The search for new therapeutic agents and 3D biodegradable materials for the recovery of spinal cord functions is a topical issue. In this review, we have summarized the literature data on the most common experimental models of spinal cord injury in laboratory rats and analyzed the experience of using 3D biodegradable materials (scaffolds) in experimental studies of spinal trauma. The advantages and disadvantages of the described models are systematically analyzed in this review.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):4-10
pages 4-10 views

B Cell Regulation in Autoimmune Diseases

Sokolov A.V., Shmidt A.A., Lomakin Y.A.


Antibody-independent B cell effector functions play an important role in the development and suppression of the immune response. An extensive body of data on cytokine regulation of the immune response by B lymphocytes has been accumulated over the past fifteen years. In this review, we focused on the mechanisms of inflammatory response suppression by subpopulations of regulatory B cells in health and autoimmune pathologies.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):11-22
pages 11-22 views

High-Throughput Screening of Biodiversity for Antibiotic Discovery

Terekhov S.S., Osterman I.A., Smirnov I.V.


The increasing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens challenges modern technologies of drug discovery. Combinatorial chemistry approaches are based on chemical libraries. They enable the creation of high-affinity low-molecular-weight ligands of the therapeutically significant molecular targets of human cells, thus opening an avenue toward a directed design of highly effective therapeutic agents. Nevertheless, these approaches face insurmountable difficulties in antibiotic discovery. Natural compounds that have evolved for such important characteristics as broad specificity and efficiency are a good alternative to chemical libraries. However, unrestricted use of natural antibiotics and their analogues leads to avalanche-like spread of resistance among bacteria. The search for new natural antibiotics, in its turn, is extremely complicated nowadays by the problem of antibiotic rediscovery. This calls for the application of alternative high-throughput platforms for antibiotic activity screening, cultivation of “unculturable” microorganisms, exploration of novel antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters, as well as their activation and heterologous expression. Microfluidic technologies for the screening of antibiotic activity at the level of single cells are, therefore, of great interest, since they enable the use of a single platform to combine the technology of ultrahigh-throughput screening, next-generation sequencing, and genome mining, thus opening up unique opportunities for antibiotic discovery.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):23-29
pages 23-29 views

Possibilities for Using Pluripotent Stem Cells for Restoring Damaged Eye Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Kharitonov A.E., Surdina A.V., Lebedeva O.S., Bogomazova A.N., Lagarkova M.A.


The retinal pigment epithelium is a monolayer of pigmented, hexagonal cells connected by tight junctions. These cells compose part of the outer blood-retina barrier, protect the eye from excessive light, have important secretory functions, and support the function of photoreceptors, ensuring the coordination of a variety of regulatory mechanisms. It is the degeneration of the pigment epithelium that is the root cause of many retinal degenerative diseases. The search for reliable cell sources for the transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium is of extreme urgency. Pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem or induced pluripotent) can be differentiated with high efficiency into the pigment epithelium of the retina, which opens up possibilities for cellular therapy in macular degeneration and can slow down the development of pathology and, perhaps, restore a patient's vision. Pioneering clinical trials on transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells in the United States and Japan confirmed the need for developing and optimizing such approaches to cell therapy. For effective use, pigment epithelial cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells should have a set of functional properties characteristic of such cells in vivo. This review summarizes the current state of preclinical and clinical studies in the field of retinal pigment epithelial transplantation therapy. We also discuss different differentiation protocols based on data in the literature and our own data, and the problems holding back the widespread therapeutic application of retinal pigment epithelium differentiated from pluripotent stem cells.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):30-39
pages 30-39 views

Production of Recombinant Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Animals: Current State and Prospects

Shepelev M.V., Kalinichenko S.V., Deykin A.V., Korobko I.V.


The use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for the synthesis of the recombinant proteins secreted into milk is a current trend in the development of biotechnologies. Advances in genetic engineering, in particular the emergence of targeted genome editing technologies, have provided new opportunities and significantly improved efficiency in the generation of animals that produce recombinant proteins in milk, including economically important animals. Here, we present a retrospective review of technologies for generating transgenic animals, with emphasis on the creation of animals that produce recombinant proteins in milk. The current state and prospects for the development of this area of biotechnology are discussed in relation to the emergence of novel genome editing technologies. Experimental and practical techniques are briefly discussed.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):40-47
pages 40-47 views


Three-Dimensional Structure of Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase As Determined by Cryo-Electron Microscopy

Baymukhametov T.N., Chesnokov Y.M., Pichkur E.B., Boyko K.M., Tikhonova T.V., Myasnikov A.G., Vasiliev A.L., Lipkin A.V., Popov V.O., Kovalchuk M.V.


The structure of cytochrome c nitrite reductase from the bacterium Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at a 2.56 Å resolution. Possible structural heterogeneity of the enzyme was assessed. The backbone and side-chain orientations in the cryo-EM-based model are, in general, similar to those in the high-resolution X-ray diffraction structure of this enzyme.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):48-56
pages 48-56 views

Lynx1 Prevents Long-Term Potentiation Blockade and Reduction of Neuromodulator Expression Caused by Aβ1-42 and JNK Activation

Bychkov M.L., Vasilyeva N.A., Shulepko M.A., Balaban P.M., Kirpichnikov M.P., Lyukmanova E.N.


Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. Many neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by cognitive impairment associated with the dysfunction of nAChRs. The human membrane-tethered prototoxin Lynx1 modulates nAChR function in the brain areas responsible for learning and memory. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that the β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42 decreases Lynx1 mRNA expression in rat primary cortical neurons, and that this decrease is associated with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, we have demonstrated that the Lynx1 expression decrease, as well as the blockade of the long-term potentiation underlying learning and memory, caused by Aβ1-42, may be prevented by incubation with a water-soluble Lynx1 analogue. Our findings suggest that the water-soluble Lynx1 analogue may be a promising agent for the improvement of cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative diseases.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):57-61
pages 57-61 views

Biochemical and Functional Changes in the Eye As a Manifestation of Systemic Degeneration of the Nervous System in Parkinsonism

Kim A.R., Pavlenko T.A., Katargina L.A., Chesnokova N.B., Ugrumov M.V.


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a systemic neurodegenerative condition caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal system of the brain. This disease is diagnosed after most neurons have already been lost, which explains the low efficiency of treatment. Hope for increasing treatment efficiency rests in the development of new strategies for early diagnosis of PD based on a search for peripheral markers that appear as early changes in non-motor functions. Since impairment of the visual function is one of the manifestations of PD, the purpose of our work was to identify biochemical and physiological changes in a mouse’s eye and eyelid in models of preclinical (presymptomatic) and clinical (symptomatic) stages of PD. We found that the norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin levels in the mouse eye reduced not only in the model of the early clinical stage, but also in the model of preclinical stage, an indication that pathological changes in the monoaminergic systems of the brain had affected the eye even before the motor disorders emerged. Moreover, in both models of PD, mice had increased intraocular pressure, indicating the development of both metabolic and functional impairments, which can be used as diagnostic markers. Unlike in the eye, the serotonin level in the eyelid was increased in mice at both parkinsonism stages and in presymptomatic mice to a much higher extent than in symptomatic ones. Given that serotonin is involved in the regulation of lacrimal glands of the eyelid, an increase in its level in parkinsonian mice should alter the composition of tear fluid, which could serve as a diagnostic marker of early stage of PD. Thus, the changes in the metabolism of monoamines in the eye and eyelid observed in mice at the early stage of parkinsonism are accompanied by changes in the function of these structures and, therefore, can be used as diagnostic markers of the early stage of PD.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):62-67
pages 62-67 views

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Russian Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Isolates Related to ST 1407 Genogroup

Kubanov A.A., Runina A.V., Chestkov A.V., Kudryavtseva A.V., Pekov Y.A., Korvigo I.O., Deryabin D.G.


The whole-genome sequencing data of three N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated in the Russian Federation in 2015 are presented. According to the NG-MAST protocol, these strains are related to the globally spread ST 1407 genogroup. The analysis of their resistomes showed the absence of ermA/B/C/F genes and the presence of wild-type alleles of rpsE, rrs, rrl, rplD, rplV, macAB, and mefA genes, and these patterns explain the susceptibility of the sequenced strains to aminocyclitols (spectinomycin) and macrolides (azithromycin). Conjugative resistance determinants (blaTEM, tetM) were absent in the genomes, and the penC/ pilQ, parE, and norM alleles were shown to be wild-type, whereas single or multiple nucleotide substitutions were identified in the genes encoding targets for β-lactams (ponA, penA), tetracyclines (rpsJ), and fluoroquinolones (gyrA, parC). The additional mutations were found in porB gene and the promoter of mtrR gene, which nonspecifically reduced the susceptibility to antimicrobials due to the membrane permeability decrease and efflux pump overexpression. The diversity of mutations observed in the analyzed genomes prompted a revision of the phylogenetic relationships between the strains by comparing more than 790 groups of housekeeping genes. A high homology between the N. gonorrhoeae ST 1407 and N. gonorrhoeae ST 12556 genomes was confirmed; the latter had probably diverged from a common ancestor as a result of single mutation events. On the other hand, N. gonorrhoeae ST 12450 was an example of phenotypic convergence which appeared in the emergence of new drug resistance determinants that partially coincide with those of the ST 1407 genogroup.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):68-76
pages 68-76 views

Antibacterial Effect of Thiosulfinates on Multiresistant Strains of Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Kulikova V.V., Chernukha M.Y., Morozova E.A., Revtovich S.V., Rodionov A.N., Koval V.S., Avetisyan L.R., Kuliastova D.G., Shaginyan I.A., Demidkina T.V.


The multiresistance of A. ruhlandii 155B, B. cenocepacia 122, and P. aeruginosa 48B strains isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis was established. The antibacterial effect of allicin, dimethyl thiosulfinate, and dipropyl thiosulfinate on multidrug-resistant strains was shown. Thiosulfinates can have both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects depending on the microorganism and the concentration. The studied thiosulfinates may be candidates for the development of alternative antibiotic drugs to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):77-80
pages 77-80 views

Antidepressant Effect of an Orally Administered Dipeptide Mimetic of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Povarnina P.Y., Garibova T.L., Gudasheva T.A., Seredenin S.B.


Involvement of BDNF in the regulation of neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, impairment of which underlies the pathophysiology of depression, makes this endogenous protein a promising object for the development of new-generation antidepressants with a neurophysiologically based mechanism of action. A low-molecular-weight BDNF mimetic, GSB-106 (a substituted dimeric dipeptide, bis-(N-monosuccinyl- L-seryl-L-lysine) hexamethylenediamide), was designed and synthesized at the Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology. GSB-106 was found to activate BDNF-specific TrkB receptors and their main post-receptor signaling pathways MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT. GSB-106 exhibited pronounced antidepressant activity in a rodent test battery at a dose of 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally. Because oral administration is preferable in the treatment of depression, which is associated with a prolonged duration and outpatient character of pharmacotherapy, we examined the antidepressant properties of GSB-106 administered orally as a pharmaceutical substance (PS) and in tablet dosage form (TDF). In the study, we used the Porsolt forced swim test in rats; a conventional antidepressant, Amitriptyline, was used as a reference drug. The antidepressant activity of GSB-106 was found to retain upon oral administration and to manifest at doses of 0.5-5.0 mg/kg for PS and 0.01-5.0 mg/kg for TDF. The effective dose of TDF was 50-fold lower than that of PS, and the efficacy of tableted GSB-106 exceeded that of Amitriptyline, the “gold standard” in antidepression care. Therefore, GSB-106, both as a substance and as a tablet dosage form, exhibits antidepressant activity when administered orally, which makes it a promising antidepressant agent, the first in the class of BDNF mimetics.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):81-83
pages 81-83 views

A Novel Approach to Anticancer Therapy: Molecular Modules Based on the Barnase:Barstar Pair for Targeted Delivery of HSP70 to Tumor Cells

Sapozhnikov A.M., Klinkova A.V., Shustova O.A., Grechikhina M.V., Kilyachus M.S., Stremovskiy O.A., Kovalenko E.I., Deyev S.M.


One important distinction between many tumor cell types and normal cells consists in the translocation of a number of intracellular proteins, in particular the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), to the surface of the plasma membrane. It has been demonstrated that such surface localization of HSP70 on tumor cells is recognized by cytotoxic effectors of the immune system, which increases their cytolytic activity. The mechanisms behind this interaction are not fully clear; however, the phenomenon of surface localization of HSP70 on cancer cells can be used to develop new approaches to antitumor immunotherapy. At the same time, it is known that the presence of HSP70 on a cell’s surface is not a universal feature of cancer cells. Many types of tumor tissues do not express membrane-associated HSP70, which limits the clinical potential of these approaches. In this context, targeted delivery of exogenous HSP70 to the surface of cancer cells with the aim of attracting and activating the cytotoxic effectors of the immune system can be considered a promising means of antitumor immunotherapy. Molecular constructs containing recombinant mini-antibodies specific to tumor-associated antigens (in particular, antibodies specific to HER2/neu-antigen and other markers highly expressed on the surface of a wide range of cancer cells) can be used to target the delivery of HSP70 to tumor tissues. In order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach, recombinant constructs containing a mini-antibody specific to the HER2/ neu-antigen in the first module and HSP70 molecule or a fragment of this protein in the second module were developed in this study. Strong selective interaction between the modules was ensured by a cohesive unit formed by the barnase:barstar pair, a heterodimer characterized by an unusually high constant of association. During testing of the developed constructs in in vitro models the constructs exhibited targeted binding to tumor cells expressing the HER2/neu antigen and the agents had a significant stimulating effect on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against the respective cancer cells.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):85-91
pages 85-91 views

Expression and Intracellular Localization of Paraoxonase 2 in Different Types of Malignancies

Shakhparonov M.I., Antipova N.V., Shender V.O., Shnaider P.V., Arapidi G.P., Pestov N.B., Pavlyukov M.S.


PON2 belongs to the paraoxonase protein family that consists of lactone hydrolyzing enzymes with different substrate specificities. Unlike other members of the family, PON2 exhibits substantial antioxidant activity, is localized predominantly inside the cell, and is ubiquitously expressed in all human tissues. Previously, it was proffered that defense against pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the main function of paraoxonases. However, recent findings have highlighted the important role played by PON2 in protection against oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis, and progression of various types of malignancies. In the current study, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of RNA and DNA sequencing data extracted from tumor samples taken from more than 10,000 patients with 31 different types of cancer and determined expression levels and mutations in the PON2 gene. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of PON2 in multiple cancer cell lines and identified the proteins interacting with PON2 using the LC-MS/MS technique. Our data indicate that a high PON2 expression level correlates with a worse prognosis for patients with multiple types of solid tumors and suggest that PON2, when localized on the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum, may protect cancer cells against unfavorable environmental conditions and chemotherapy.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):92-99
pages 92-99 views

Short communications

Influence of the Activation of NMDA Receptors on the Resting Membrane Potential of the Postsynaptic Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction

Proskurina S.E., Petrov K.A., Nikolsky E.E.


Impaired function or insufficient expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors underlies a number of brain pathologies; these receptors are, therefore, regarded as a pharmacological target for many neuroactive drugs. It was shown that in the CNS, this type of glutamate receptors participate in the processes of neuronal excitation, synaptic plasticity [1, 2], and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases and are also involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and seizures. However, until recently, the presence and activity of NMDA receptors beyond the CNS had never been considered. This research shows that activation of NMDA receptors at the mammalian neuromuscular junction alters the resting membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell evoked by cation entry through the receptor-associated channel.

Acta Naturae. 2018;10(3):100-102
pages 100-102 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies