Vol 11, No 3 (2019)


The Molecular Mechanisms of Gametic Incompatibility in Invertebrates

Lobov A.A., Maltseva A.L., Mikhailova N.A., Granovitch A.I.


Fertilization (gamete fusion followed by zygote formation) is a multistage process. Each stage is mediated by ligand-receptor recognition of gamete interaction molecules. This recognition includes the movement of sperm in the gradient of egg chemoattractants, destruction of the egg envelope by acrosomal proteins, etc. Gametic incompatibility is one of the mechanisms of reproductive isolation. It is based on species-specific molecular interactions that prevent heterospecific fertilization. Although gametic incompatibility may occur in any sexually reproducing organism, it has been studied only in a few model species. Gamete interactions in different taxa involve generally similar processes, but they often employ non-homologous molecules. Gamete recognition proteins evolve rapidly, like immunity proteins, and include many taxon-specific families. In fact, recently appeared proteins particularly contribute to reproductive isolation via gametic incompatibility. Thus, we can assume a multiple, independent origin of this type of reproductive isolation throughout animal evolution. Gametic incompatibility can be achieved at any fertilization stage and entails different consequences at different taxonomic levels and ranges, from complete incompatibility between closely related species to partial incompatibility between distantly related taxa.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):4-15
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Research Articles

Cold Physical Plasma Decreases the Viability of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

Golubitskaya E.A., Troitskaya O.S., Yelak E.V., Gugin P.P., Richter V.A., Schweigert I.V., Zakrevsky D.E., Koval O.A.


The high mortality rate that accompanies cancer spurs the search for new methods that can be used to treat malignant neoplasms. In addition to chemotherapy, electrophysical techniques for tumor treatment appear rather promising. The results of in vitro exposure of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells to cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) are hereby presented. A gas-discharge device that generates a sequence of streamers propagating along a stream of inert gas in the ambient air was used. In the zone where the plasma jet came into contact with the target object, there were high-intensity electric fields and high plasma concentrations, while the gas temperature changed by less than a degree. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic effect of CAP in helium and argon. Direct irradiation of cells by CAP with U = 4.2 kV for 30-120 s was shown to reduce cell viability by 25%. Variation of the amplitude of the AC voltage in the plasma device in argon within a range of 3.8-5.6 kV did not significantly alter the cell death rate. Further optimization of the modes of CAP generation in gas-discharge devices with various geometries for the treatment of a tumor cell and animal tumor models can underlie the development of antitumor plasma medicine.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):16-19
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A Novel Sulfonated Derivative of β-Cyclodextrin Effectively Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection in vitro and in vivo

Goncharova E.P., Kostyro Y.A., Ivanov A.V., Zenkova M.A.


The development of novel drugs against the influenza virus with high efficiency and low toxicity is an urgent and important task. Previous reports have demonstrated that compounds based on sulfo derivatives of oligo- and polysaccharides possess high antiviral activity. In this study, we have examined the ability of a novel sulfonated derivative of β-cyclodextrin (KS-6469) to inhibit the influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) infection in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral potential of KS-6469 against the influenza virus was evaluated in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney epithelial cells treated with serially diluted KS-6469. We found out that KS-6469 completely inhibited viral reproduction after treatment of the infected cells with the compound for 48 h. Our data show that double intranasal treatment of mice with KS-6469 fully protected the animals from a lethal infection and significantly decreased the viral titers in the lungs of the infected animals. Thus, the novel sulfonated β-cyclodextrin derivative KS-6469 is a promising candidate for the development of antiviral drugs for preventing and treating the influenza infection.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):20-30
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A Nerve Growth Factor Dipeptide Mimetic Stimulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis in the Hippocampus and Striatum of Adult Rats with Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Gudasheva T.A., Povarnina P.Y., Volkova A.A., Kruglov S.V., Antipova T.A., Seredenin S.B.


The nerve growth factor (NGF) and its mimetics, which have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties, are attractive candidates for developing new drugs for brain injury therapy. A dipeptide mimetic of NGF loop 4, bis(N-succinyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine) hexamethylenediamide (GK-2), developed at the Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology, has the NGF-like ability to activate TrkA receptors, but unlike NGF, GK-2 activates mainly the PI3K/AKT pathway associated with neuroprotection and has no effect on the MAPK cascade associated with hyperalgesia, the main side effect of NGF. That GK-2 possesses neuroprotective activity has been observed in various models of cerebral ischemia. GK-2 was found to statistically significantly reduce the cerebral infarct volume in experimental stroke, even at treatment onset 24 h after injury. This suggests that GK-2 possesses neuroregenerative properties, which may be associated with the activation of neurogenesis and/or synaptogenesis. We studied the effect of GK-2 on neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in experimental ischemic stroke caused by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. GK-2 was administered 6 or 24 h after surgery and then once a day for 7 days. One day after the last administration, proliferative activity in the hippocampus and striatum of the affected hemisphere was assessed using Ki67 and synaptogenesis in the striatum was evaluated using synaptophysin and PSD-95. Ki67 immunoreactivity, both in the striatum and in the hippocampus of the ischemic rats, was found to have dropped by approximately 30% compared to that in the sham-operated controls. Synaptic markers - synaptophysin and PSD-95 - were also statistically significantly reduced, by 14 and 29%, respectively. GK-2 in both administration schedules completely restored the level of Ki67 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and promoted its increase in the striatum. In addition, GK-2 restored the level of the postsynaptic marker PSD-95, with the therapeutic effect amounting to 70% at the start of its administration after 6 h, and promoted restoration of the level of this marker at the start of administration 24 h after an experimental stroke. GK-2 had no effect on the synaptophysin level. These findings suggest that the neurotrophin mimetic GK-2, which mainly activates one of the main Trk receptor signaling pathways PI3K/ AKT, has a stimulating effect on neurogenesis (and, probably, gliogenesis) and synaptogenesis in experimental cerebral ischemia. This effect may explain the protective effect observed at the start of dipeptide administration 24 h after stroke simulation.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):31-37
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The Mechanisms of Action of Triindolylmethane Derivatives on Lipid Membranes

Efimova S.S., Tertychnaya T.E., Lavrenov S.N., Ostroumova O.S.


The effects of new synthetic antibacterial agents - tris(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylium chloride (LCTA-1975) and (1-(4-(dimethylamino)-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)bis(1-propyl- 1H-indol-3-yl)methylium chloride (LCTA-2701 - on model lipid membranes were studied. The ability of the tested agents to form ion-conductive transmembrane pores, influence the electrical stability of lipid bilayers and the phase transition of membrane lipids, and cause the deformation and fusion of lipid vesicles was investigated. It was established that both compounds exert a strong detergent effect on model membranes. The results of differential scanning microcalorimetry and measuring of the threshold transmembrane voltage that caused membrane breakdown before and after adsorption of LCTA-1975 and LCTA-2701 indicated that both agents cause disordering of membrane lipids. Synergism of the uncoupling action of antibiotics and the alkaloid capsaicin on model lipid membranes was shown. The threshold concentration of the antibiotic that caused an increase in the ion permeability of the lipid bilayer depended on the membrane lipid composition. It was lower by an order of magnitude in the case of negatively charged lipid bilayers than for the uncharged membranes. This can be explained by the positive charge of the tested agents. At the same time, LCTA-2701 was characterized by greater efficiency than LCTA-1975. In addition to its detergent action, LCTA-2701 can induce ion-permeable transmembrane pores: step-like current fluctuations corresponding to the opening and closing of individual ion channels were observed. The difference in the mechanisms of action might be related to the structural features of the antibiotic molecules: in the LCTA-1975 molecule, all three substituents at the nitrogen atoms of the indole rings are identical and represent n-alkyl (pentyl) groups, while LCTA-2701 contains a maleimide group, along with two alkyl substituents (n-propyl). The obtained results might be relevant to our understanding of the mechanism of action of new antibacterial agents, explaining the difference in the selectivity of action of the tested agents on the target microorganisms and their toxicity to human cells. Model lipid membranes should be used in further studies of the trends in the modification and improvement of the structures of new antibacterial agents.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):38-45
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The Effect of a Lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG on Inflammation Caused by Various Influenza Strains

Zubova S.V., Vorovich M.F., Gambaryan A.S., Ishmukhametov A.A., Grachev S.V., Prokhorenko I.R.


The development of a specific inflammation in mice that had been infected by two influenza virus strains, A/chicken/Kurgan/5/2005 (H5N1) and A/Hamburg/2009 MA (H1N1), was studied. We investigated the effect of a non-toxic lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG on the how to know if rolex fake survival and body weight of the mice, production of IgG antibodies, and the induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum. The administration of the R. capsulatus PG lipopolysaccharide was shown to induce interferon-β synthesis, cheap replica luxury watches both in healthy and influenza A virus-infected mice, and to promote production of antiviral antibodies in the blood of rolex oyster fakethe influenza-infected animals.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):46-55
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The Structural and Immunological Properties of Chimeric Proteins Containing HIV-1 MPER Sites

Rudometov A.P., Rudometova N.B., Shcherbakov D.N., Lomzov A.A., Kaplina O.N., Shcherbakova N.S., Ilyichev A.A., Bakulina A.Y., Karpenko L.I.


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) poses a serious risk to global public health. The development of a safe and effective vaccine could stop the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Much of the research focused on HIV-1 prevention through vaccination is aimed at developing immunogens and immunization strategies to induce the formation of antibodies with neutralizing activity against a broad range of HIV-1 isolates (bNAbs). The objective of this study was to develop immunogens capable of targeting an immune response to MPER, one of the regions of bNAb binding in Env. Two immunogens carrying MPER fragments on their scaffolds (protein YkuJ Bacillus subtilis and artificial polypeptide TBI) were constructed. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to show that the secondary structure of the immunogens was consistent with their theoretical models. The antigenic structure of the MPER-TBI and YkuJ-MPER proteins was characterized using bNAbs that recognize HIV-1 MPER (2F5, 4E10, and 10E8). The rabbit model made it possible to show the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant proteins. The resulting serum was found to be cross-reactive with immunogens carrying MPER. The constructs designed and characterized in this study can be used for targeting the humoral immune response to MPER, which is known to be one of the sites of HIV-1 vulnerability.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):56-65
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Long Noncoding RNA LL35/Falcor Regulates Expression of Transcription Factor Foxa2 in Hepatocytes in Normal and Fibrotic Mouse Liver

Sergeeva O.V., Korinfskaya S.A., Kurochkin I.I., Zatsepin T.S.


Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play important roles in the regulation of transcription, splicing, translation, and other processes in the cell. Human and mouse lncRNA (DEANR1 and LL35/Falcor, respectively) located in the genomic environment in close proximity to the Foxa2 transcription factor were discovered earlier. In this work, tissue-specific expression of LL35/Falcor lncRNA has been shown in mouse liver and lungs. The use of antisense oligonucleotides allowed us to achieve LL35/Falcor lncRNA downregulation by 90%. As a result, the level of Foxa2 mRNA and protein dropped, which confirms the involvement of LL35/Falcor lncRNA in the regulation of transcription factor Foxa2. We have shown a decrease in the expression of LL35 lncRNA in liver fibrosis, which correlates with the previously published data for mRNA Foxa2. Thus, lncRNA LL35 regulates Foxa2 expression in the liver not only in normal conditions, but also during development of fibrosis, which allows one to consider lncRNA a biomarker of this pathological process.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):66-74
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Surgical Simulation of a Posttraumatic Spinal Cord Glial Scar in Rats

Telegin G.B., Minakov A.N., Chernov A.S., Manskikh V.N., Asyutin D.S., Konovalov N.A., Gabibov A.G.


We developed and verified an original, minimally invasive method for surgical simulation of a posttraumatic spinal cord glial scar in rats. The model is intended for use as a biological platform for testing the stimulation of regenerative processes in the central nervous system. Unification of the model enables one to achieve versatility both for implantation techniques and for the development of system-action approaches. Faced with a standard structural defect of the spinal cord, researchers will have the unique opportunity to test in vivo promising methods for spinal function recovery in the posttraumatic period. We developed anesthetic support, surgical tactics, and a set of rehabilitation measures for the chronic postoperative period. Experimental exposure effects were preliminarily assessed in vivo using a standard technique for recording the motor activity of rats in the postoperative period of spinal cord injury. Our final conclusions were drawn based on an analysis of histological sections of the rat spinal cord glial scar in three mutually perpendicular planes.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):75-81
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The Catalytic Mechanisms of the Reactions between Tryptophan Indole-Lyase and Nonstandard Substrates: The Role of the Ionic State of the Catalytic Group Accepting the Cα Proton of the Substrate

Faleev N.G., Tsvetikova M.A., Gogoleva O.I., Kulikova V.V., Revtovich S.V., Kochetkov K.A.


In the reaction between tryptophan indole-lyase (TIL) and a substrate containing a bad leaving group (L-serine), general acid catalysis is required for the group's elimination. During this stage, the proton originally bound to the Cα atom of the substrate is transferred to the leaving group, which is eliminated as a water molecule. As a result, the basic group that had accepted the Cα proton at the previous stage has to be involved in the catalytic stage following the elimination in its basic form. On the other hand, when the substrate contains a good leaving group (β-chloro-L-alanine), general acid catalysis is not needed at the elimination stage and cannot be implemented, because there are no functional groups in enzymes whose acidity is strong enough to protonate the elimination of a base as weak as Cl- anion. Consequently, the group that had accepted the Cα proton does not lose its additional proton during the elimination stage and should take part in the subsequent stage in its acidic (not basic) form. To shed light on the mechanistic consequences of the changes in the ionic state of this group, we have considered the pH dependencies of the main kinetic parameters for the reactions of TIL with L-serine and β-chloro-L-alanine and the kinetic isotope effects brought about by replacement of the ordinary water used as a solvent with 2H2O. We have found that in the reaction between TIL and β-chloro-L-alanine, the aminoacrylate hydrolysis stage is sensitive to the solvent isotope effect, while in the reaction with L-serine it is not. We have concluded that in the first reaction, the functional group containing an additional proton fulfills a definite catalytic function, whereas in the reaction with L-serine, when the additional proton is absent, the mechanism of hydrolysis of the aminoacrylate intermediate should be fundamentally different. Possible mechanisms were considered.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):82-88
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An Abnormally High Closing Potential of the OMPF Porin Channel from Yersinia Ruckeri: The Role of Charged Residues and Intramolecular Bonds

Chistyulin D.K., Novikova O.D., Zelepuga E.A., Khomenko V.A., Likhatskaya G.N., Portnyagina O.Y., Antonenko Y.N.


Electrophysiological experiments on bilayer lipid membranes showed that the isolated outer membrane major porin of Yersinia ruckeri (YrOmpF) exhibits activity typical of porins from Gram-negative bacteria, forming channels with a mean conductance of 230 pS (in 0.1 M KCl) and slight asymmetry with respect to the applied voltage. Under acidic conditions (up to pH = 3.0), there was no significant decrease in the total conductance of the YrOmpF channel reconstituted into the bilayer. The studied channel significantly differed from the porins of other bacteria by high values of its critical closing potential (Vc): Vc = 232 mV at pH = 7.0 and Vc = 164 mV at pH = 5.0. A theoretical model of the YrOmpF spatial structure was used for the analysis of the charge distribution in the mouth and inside the channel to explain these properties and quantitatively assess the bonds between the amino acid residues in the L3 loop and on the inner wall of the barrel. The parameters of YrOmpF were compared with those of the classical OmpF porin from E. coli. The results of electrophysiological experiments and theoretical analysis are discussed in terms of the mechanism for voltage-dependent closing of porin channels.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):89-98
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Short communications

A Unique Prototypic Device for Radiation Therapy: The p53-Independent Antiproliferative Effect of Neutron Radiation

Yurkov D.I., Syromukov S.V., Tatarskiy V.V., Ivanova E.S., Khamidullina A.I., Yastrebova M.A., Sysoev V.I., Dobrov R.V., Belousov A.V., Morozov V.N., Kolyvanova M.A., Krusanov G.A., Zverev V.I., Shtil A.A.


Radiation therapy with heavy particles including neutrons, an otherwise therapeutically perspective because of its high tissue penetration and efficient tumor damage, is currently limited by the lack of adequate equipment. An NG-24 generator (140 kg, 42 × 110 cm, ~1011 particles/s, > 14 MeV) has been designed and engineered to replace the huge and environmentally harmful neutron reactors, cyclotrons, and accelerators with a compact, portable, safe, and potent source of high-energy neutrons. We demonstrate that the neutron beam produced by NG-24 causes a significant antiproliferative effect on human tumor cell lines regardless of the status of the anti-apoptotic p53 protein. Phosphorylation of histone 2A and increased amounts of p21, cyclin D, and phospho-p53 were detectable in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells (wild-type p53) irradiated with 4 Gy several days post-treatment, accompanied by G2/M phase arrest. These treatments dramatically reduced the ability of single cells to form colonies. In the HCT116p53KO subline (p53 -/-), the G2/M arrest was independent of the aforementioned mechanisms. Hence, the NG-24 generator is a source of a powerful, therapeutically relevant neutron flux that triggers a p53-independent antiproliferative response in tumor cells.

Acta Naturae. 2019;11(3):99-102
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