Factors Affecting Aggregate Formation in Cell Models of Huntington’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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Abstract


Most neurodegenerative pathologies stem from the formation of aggregates of mutant proteins, causing dysfunction and ultimately neuronal death. This study was aimed at elucidating the role of the protein factors that promote aggregate formation or prevent the process, respectively, glyceraldehyde-3-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and Hsp70 molecular chaperone. The siRNA technology was used to show that the inhibition of GAPDH expression leads to a 45–50% reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin, with a repeat of 103 glutamine residues in a model of Huntington’s disease (HD). Similarly, the blockage of GAPDH synthesis was found for the first time to reduce the degree of aggregation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (G93A) in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The treatment of cells that imitate HD and ALS with a pharmacological GAPDH inhibitor, hydroxynonenal, was also shown to reduce the amount of the aggregating material in both disease models. Tissue transglutaminase is another factor that promotes the aggregation of mutant proteins; the inhibition of its activity with cystamine was found to prevent aggregate formation of mutant huntingtin and SOD1. In order to explore the protective function of Hsp70 in the control of the aggregation of mutant huntingtin, a cell model with inducible expression of the chaperone was used. The amount and size of polyglutamine aggregates were reduced by increasing the intracellular content of Hsp70. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the function of three proteins, GAPDH, tTG, and Hsp70, can affect the pathogenesis of two significant neurodegenerative diseases.


V. F. Lazarev

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

D. V. Sverchinskyi

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

M. V. Ippolitova

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

A. V. Kaznacheyeva

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

I. V. Guzhova

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

B. A. Margulis

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vl.lazarev@gmail.com

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2013 Lazarev V.F., Sverchinskyi D.V., Ippolitova M.V., Stepanova A.V., Guzhova I.V., Margulis B.A.

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