Skeletal Muscle Activity and the Fate of Myonuclei

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Abstract


ABSTRACT Adult skeletal muscle fiber is a symplast multinuclear structure developed in ontogenesis by the fusion of the myoblasts (muscle progenitor cells). The nuclei of a muscle fiber (myonuclei) are those located at the periphery of fiber in the space between myofibrils and sarcolemma. In theory, a mass change in skeletal muscle during exercise or unloading may be associated with the altered myonuclear number, ratio of the transcription, and translation and proteolysis rates. Here we review the literature data related to the phenomenology and hypothetical mechanisms of the myonuclear number alterations during enhanced or reduced muscle contractile activity. In many cases (during severe muscle and systemic diseases and gravitational unloading), muscle atrophy is accompanied by a reduction in the amount of myonuclei. Such reduction is usually explained by the development of myonuclear apoptosis. A myonuclear number increase may be provided only by the satellite cell nuclei incorporation via cell fusion with the adjacent myofiber. It is believed that it is these cells which supply fiber with additional nuclei, providing postnatal growth, work hypertrophy, and repair processes. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms controlling satellite cell proliferation during exercise, functional unloading, and passive stretch.

Skeletal Muscle Activity and the Fate of Myonuclei

B S Shenkman

Grigoriev Institute for Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: shenkman@imbp.ru

O V Turtikova

Grigoriev Institute for Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

T L Nemirovskaya

Grigoriev Institute for Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

A I Grigoriev

Grigoriev Institute for Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

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