Late Replication of the Inactive X Chromosome Is Independent of the Compactness of Chromosome Territory in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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Abstract


Dosage compensation of the X chromosomes in mammals is performed via the formation of facultative heterochromatin on extra X chromosomes in female somatic cells. Facultative heterochromatin of the inactivated X (Xi), as well as constitutive heterochromatin, replicates late during the S-phase. It is generally accepted that Xi is always more compact in the interphase nucleus. The dense chromosomal folding has been proposed to define the late replication of Xi. In contrast to mouse pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), the status of X chromosome inactivation in human PSCs may vary significantly. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a whole X-chromosome-specific DNA probe revealed that late-replicating Xi may occupy either compact or dispersed territory in human PSCs. Thus, the late replication of the Xi does not depend on the compactness of chromosome territory in human PSCs. However, the Xi reactivation and the synchronization in the replication timing of X chromosomes upon reprogramming are necessarily accompanied by the expansion of X chromosome territory.


A. V. Panova

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: bogomazova@vigg.ru

Russian Federation

E. D. Nekrasov

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: bogomazova@vigg.ru

Russian Federation

M. A. Lagarkova

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: bogomazova@vigg.ru

Russian Federation

S. L. Kiselev

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: bogomazova@vigg.ru

Russian Federation

A. N. Bogomazova

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: bogomazova@vigg.ru

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2013 Panova A.V., Nekrasov E.D., Lagarkova M.A., Kiselev S.L., Bogomazova A.N.

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