Model Systems of Motor Neuron Diseases As a Platform for Studying Pathogenic Mechanisms and Searching for Therapeutic Agents

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Abstract


Over the past 30 years, many molecular genetic mechanisms underlying motor neuron diseases (MNDs) have been discovered and studied. Among these diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which causes the progressive degeneration and death of central and peripheral motor neurons, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which is one of the inherited diseases that prevail among hereditary diseases in the pattern of child mortality, hold a special place. These diseases, like most nerve, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases, cannot be treated appropriately at present. Artificial model systems, especially those that are based on the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are of paramount importance in searching for adequate therapeutic agents, as well as for a deep understanding of the MND pathogenesis. This review is mainly focused on the recent advance in the development of and research into cell and animal models of ALS and SMA. The main issues concerning the use of cellular technologies in biomedical applications are also described.


K. R. Valetdinova

Institute of Cytology and Genetics; Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine; Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology; Novosibirsk State University

Email: zakian@bionet.nsc.ru

Russian Federation

S. P. Medvedev

Institute of Cytology and Genetics; Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine; Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology; Novosibirsk State University

Email: zakian@bionet.nsc.ru

Russian Federation

S. M. Zakian

Institute of Cytology and Genetics; Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine; Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology; Novosibirsk State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: zakian@bionet.nsc.ru

Russian Federation

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